The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish.The capital of the island, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands.The international airport, Palma de Mallorca Airport, is one of the busiest in Spain; it was used by 28.0 million passengers in 2017, increasing every year since 2012.Little is recorded of the earliest inhabitants of the island.The island eventually came under the control of Carthage in North Africa, which had become the principal Phoenician city.After the Second Punic War, Carthage lost all of its overseas possessions and the Romans took over.The Almoravides were replaced by the Almohad dynasty until 1229. In the ensuing confusion and unrest, King James I of Aragon, also known as James the Conqueror, launched an invasion which landed at Santa Ponça, Mallorca, on 8–9 September 1229 with 15,000 men and 1,500 horses.
Recurrent invasions led the islanders to ask Charlemagne for help.) conquered the Balearic Islands, ushering in a new period of prosperity under the Emirate of Córdoba.
Those events became known as the Battle of Majorca.
Since the 1950s, the advent of mass tourism has transformed the island into a destination for foreign visitors and attracted many service workers from mainland Spain.
A Nationalist stronghold at the start of the Spanish Civil War, Mallorca was subjected to an amphibious landing, on 16 August 1936, aimed at driving the Nationalists from Mallorca and reclaiming the island for the Republic.
Although the Republicans heavily outnumbered their opponents and managed to push 12 km (7.5 mi) inland, superior Nationalist air power, provided mainly by Fascist Italy as part of the Italian occupation of Majorca, forced the Republicans to retreat and to leave the island completely by 12 September.