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In the vases were exported wines, olive oil and toilet ointments. The king had been supplanted by the members of his gens, the Bacchiadae, who, forming a close aristocracy, refused intermarriage with any other class. Better it is, says Hesiod, to bring up but a single son, especially as heirs often waste 5 op. Even the lonians, not content with their rich native fabrics, welcomed the Corinthian robes of purple, sea-green, hyacinth, violet, and bril- liant red. For illustrations see Maraghian- nis, G., Antiquites cretoiscs, 2 vols. Evans, A., Atlas of Cnossian An- tiquities (Macmillan), is promised. In the carving of stone vessels, however, the artist reached perfection.* Melos. In the present volume the term Mycenaean will be treated as equivalent to " Late Minoan." ^ Early Minoan (Copper) age. In the beginning of the Early Minoan age the potter invented a black glaze for washing his wares. This site had been occupied in the transition to the bronze age, and the settlement of which we now speak is the second. These elements of art continued down to historical Greece. This type of dwelling originated in central Europe. Gradually the moulding and painting attained freedom and variety. The same plan is afterward found on a more complex scale in the palace at Tiryns. Copper was followed at an interval of centuries by bronze.

OF CANADA, Lt Do TORONTO HELLENIC HISTORY BY GEORGE WILLIS BOTSFORD Author of "The Development of the Athenian Constitution,'" "A History of Greece,'' "A History of Rome," "A History of the Ancient World," ■'The Roman Assemblies, '' etc. Reprinted August, 1922; February, June, 1923; January, 1924; January, November 192S ; November, 1926. The occurrence of a similar style of pottery, not only over the Aegean isles but as far distant as Cyprus and Egypt, proves the existence of com- merce throughout this extended area. The presence of ivory shows contact with Egypt.— Other parts of Europe were contemporaneously in the neolithic stage, but somewhat less advanced; cf. Next after them followed the inhabitants of the neighboring Cyclades, and in fact their influence was felt from the coast of Argolis, Greece, to Troy in Asia Minor. In this period the rectangular house became larger, more substantial, and better furnished.

Greek calendar, any of a variety of dating systems used by the several city-states in the time of classical Greece and differing in the names of their months and in the times of beginning the year.

Each of these calendars attempted to combine in a single system the lunar year of 12 cycles of phases of the moon, totaling about 354 days, and the solar year of about 365 days.

As the pointed instru- ment yielded to the brush, zigzags naturally developed into curvilinear and simple spiral designs. In exposed places from the beginning of the age men were wont to fortify their settlements with rude walls of uncut stones, whereas other cities, like those of Crete, remained unprotected. The great innovation of the age was the introduction of copper, most probably from Egypt and Cyprus. For a long time, however, stone maintained its place in the useful arts. — Early Egyptian Name of the Minoans, Hanebu, Dussaud, 452. 12 A monumental work on the Minoan script is Evans.

Here, too, appears the first evidence of the potter's wheel. The oldest neolithic objects discovered in Thessaly mav be somewhat earlier than those of Crete. Equally important was the adoption of a system of picture writing, pictographs. THE MINOAN AGE 11 Other wares were exchanged in this period, and Egyptian records mention the Aegean folk by name. This change marks the beginning of the Middle Minoan period. 8 Among the East-Cretan sites already excavated are Gournia, Zakro, Palaikastro, and the island of Mochlos. Scripta Minoa (1909), the second D in O u o' u w « PS iftiade of Achilles says, " Speak not comfortably to me of death, glorious Odysseus.

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