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By that time, metallurgy had developed sufficiently so that brass could be worked into fixed ammunition.
Previously, each round was custom made as needed: the shooter poured loose powder down the barrel, used leather or cloth for wadding if time allowed, selected a suitable projectile (lead ball, rocks, arrow, or nail), then seated the projectile on top of the powder charge by means of a ramrod. Fixed ammunition combined a primer, the pre-measured charge, and the projectile in a water-resistant brass cartridge case.
In the late 15th century, the Ottoman Empire used firearms as part of its regular infantry.
A repeating firearm or "repeater" is a firearm that holds more than one cartridge and can be fired more than once between chargings.
Others use either the firearm's recoil or a small portion of the propellant gas drawn from the barrel, to operate the firearm's mechanism and ready it for the next shot.
Such firearms are sometimes called "self-loading," but are more commonly known as semi-automatic, if they fire one shot for every pull of the trigger, or automatic or "full-auto" if they continue to fire until the trigger is released and the magazine is empty.
these inventions were later transmitted to the Middle East, Africa, and Europe.
The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire lance.