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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U. or US) or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.). Following the French and Indian War, numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

With a population of over 327 million people, the U. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a colonial empire.

The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River.

Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620.

In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius). Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U. It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.

The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America The short form "United States" is also standard. The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit. Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago.

Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber.

Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.

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The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans.Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars.While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600. Dobyns believed that the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.The first interaction between Europeans and Native Americans was made by the Norsemen.

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