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The book of Daniel is an apocalyptic of the Old Testament.
It is divided into two main parts: history and prophecy.
The last chronological event written as history (as opposed to prophecy) is "the third year of Cyrus King of Persia," (Dan 10:1) which was 537 BC (pg. This, together with the first date, gives us reason to believe that the book was probably written/compiled, according to the author, sometime quite soon after 537 BC, as he would have been somewhere over eighty years old (pg. The historical evidences stem from arguments that have been alleged that there are historical errors or inaccuracies in Daniel.
The evidences are counter-arguments which use recent archaeological findings to prove that Daniel is correct, and our previous information was incomplete.
The first, if the author of Daniel lived in the second century during the persecution, therefore in Palestine, one would naturally assume that he would use his native system of dating, and not the ancient, relatively unknown system of Babylonian dating.
This would be especially true if the author's purpose was to encourage the people of his day who were currently suffering persecution also, as the proponents of the second century date of writing believe.
But ever since the third century AD, when the neoplatonist, Poryphyry, write a work entitled Against Christians, questions have been raised about the authenticity of the work (Ferch, pg. Porphyry's contention is that the book must have been written in the second century BC, being merely historical narratives, since such long-range prophecies are impossible in his perspective of a closer systemic universe, void of any supernatural intervention. Driver's commentary on Daniel, proposing the same theory.
Before this, and for some time after that, the general consensus was that the book was written by Daniel in the sixth century BC, and is the truly inspired prophecy from God (vaticania ante eventu vs. The debate began again with fervor in the seventeenth through the eighteenth centuries, during the scientific revolution, when naturalism and rationalism had an upsurge. Since then, the majority of scholars generally accept the Maccabean theory without much question.
In Matthew , Jesus is discoursing in what we tend to call the "Little Apocalypse." In it, Jesus mentions Daniel, and a quote from his book.
The literary arguments, for the most part, stem from contentions that many of the words used in Daniel are from an era much later than the sixth century, therefore the book couldn't have been written at that time.
The counter-arguments for this type also uses recent findings to prove that the words used by Daniel can definitely have come from the sixth century, therefore their contentions are invalid.
The second part of this argument says that if Daniel were an unknown, but well knowledgeable Jew (as he would have had to have been to know Babylonian history as well as he does) he would have certainly followed in the footsteps of a well respected prophet.
In writing his book he presumes to appear as a prophet himself, encouraging his people to persevere through persecution, he would undoubtedly try to make his work seem as Scriptural as possible.